PILS, Particle Into Liquid Sampler
The capabilities of voltammetry can be expanded considerably when the VA system is coupled with other analytical methods or sample preparation techniques.
With VoltIC it is possible to simultaneously determine transistion metals by means of VA as well as anions and cations using ion chromatography in a combined system from one sample vessel.
The PILS sampling technology allows to determine heavy metals in aerosol particles in ambient air. PILS can be used as air monitoring sampling technology for voltammetry, for ion chromatography or for the combination of both.
PILS collects ambient aerosols in a liquid sample stream. This is fed into the ion chromatograph for analysis. The semi-continuous measurement allows the determination of anions and cations with a high time resolution, thus allowing you to follow fast changes in aerosol composition.
Aerosol fractions of PM1 up to PM10 (particles smaller than 1 µm up to smaller than 10 µm) may be detected, depending on the used cyclone or impactor to remove larger particles. Acidic and alkaline gases will be removed by denuders upstream of the PILS.
No further sample preparation is required.
Other analysis methods using liquid samples may be connected as well.